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Speaker system Main technical characteristics of the application

[Author:admin] [Date:14-04-15] [Hot:]
 Speaker system has a number of occasions with the use of sound effects and directly related to the technical characteristics of these technologies in order to make the best use of live features, a user must understand them.
1) The Road (2 sub-band) and three-way (three-way) speaker system
     The audio signal spectrum with a wide range to 20HZ-20KHZ Signal to use a loudspeaker unit is unable to meet the frequency response of the whole; because of the general 12-inch large-diameter speaker unit, bass characteristics of a good little distortion, but the More than 1.5HZ signal, its performance on the very bad; 1-2 inch tweeters unit (tweeter compression drivers) playback signal performance of more than 3KHZ good, but you can not replay the tone and the bass signal. So there will be a unit formed by a variety of frequency response of the speaker system, from the bass (with bass) and treble (with alt) two kinds of modules, known as the Road speaker system, from the bass, the tone and Treble three kinds of modules, known as the three-way systems.
     Road speaker system is simple, relatively low cost, in order to address the lack of this mid-range frequencies. So some manufacturers use an eclectic approach, that the bass line in the sub-band frequency response characteristics of units moved up to tweeter the frequency characteristics of down. Another problem is that, sub-frequency crossover points, frequency can only be set at 500HZ-2KHZ between this region and the voices and the music is an important part of the spectrum. Therefore, in hearing will stay on the "empty" feeling, and can hear the distortion (of course, the slope of the divider features a little bigger, for example, 18DB / octave, this flaw could receive some compensation). Also because of this, Road to the speaker unit speaker requirements are relatively high, if the poor performance of units, the entire loudspeaker system is not smooth voice, or have a serious phase distortion.
     Three-way speaker system, the characteristics of each unit from time to compromise, give full play to their respective strengths, the two sub-selectable frequency crossover points, in the tenor voice and the sound of music an important part of the spectrum of the upper and lower edges, the sound quality there is no influences, a small three-way speaker system the sound distortion and improve the clarity of the sound, improved bass and treble frequency bands between the cross-performance speaker system increases the power handling capability. Therefore, theatrical performances, concert halls and opera houses the best choice for sound reinforcement system.
2) sensitivity and maximum sound pressure level (SPL MAX)
     Speaker unit is a kind of electrical signal and sound between the transducers require it to replace a relatively small input power is very loud and clear voice, which have a higher demand speaker sound pressure sensitivity. "Sensitivity" is essentially a kind of "conversion efficiency" is all about. Due to various types of loudspeaker system design technology, choice of materials and production processes, and many other differences, the sensitivity was different. Sensitivity refers to the speaker unit 1 watt input electric power, in the speaker axis 1 meter away from where the sound pressure level measured at the size. If the difference between the two kinds of speaker sensitivity 3DB, to achieve the same sound pressure level of a large output, the need for additional electrical input power is doubled, so the higher sensitivity speaker can issue a larger voice.
     Speaker system input power capacity is generally much larger than a watt (typically 100 watts -2,000 watts), so the actual use can enter the maximum allowable electric power. At rated maximum power, enter the speaker, the speaker produced by the axial sound pressure level at 1 meter referred to as the greatest SPL SPL MAX. Cases, sensitivity = 100DB, 1W/1M speaker, if the capacity of a maximum power of 1000W, the SPLMAX = 100DB +30 DB = 130DB, 1M. Another question everyone is concerned about is the two identical sound pressure level of the speaker box put together a synthesis of sound pressure level in the end how much? "The answer is: in indoor mixed sound field outside the radius of about twice the increase in 3DB."
     Here leads to a performance / price ratio of economic accounting. For example, a SPL1 = 90DB of the speakers, is priced at 5,000 yuan, another speaker of the SPL2 = 99DB, priced at 2 million, if the system requirements to achieve 99DB sound pressure level, then the sound pressure level of the speakers use a low 8 (8 ¡Á 5000 = 4 million), and the other a high sound pressure level of the speaker only with one (2 million) is sufficient, in addition to eight speakers with 8 times the power needed to push, only increases the cost of investment .
3) distortion and sound quality
     Very sorry, speakers do not have the nominal plant distortion rate of their products, in fact, it is a very important technical parameters. Sound quality is a more abstract assessment, nor did the document may be nominal, but to take a subjective listening with one's hand. In general, sensitivity and sound quality are contradictory, manufacturers need to strike a balance between appropriate. In general, the low-priced products, are sensitive to lead, the pursuit of cost performance. The emphasis on high-priced quality products. And the highest level, who are both.
4) "personality" and "commonality"
     This again brought up the other relatively abstract and subjective performance evaluation. Sound reinforcement with sound, different from the home HI-FI audio equipment, must be compatibility is very high, because each site may perform different types of shows from opera to rock concerts, but also likely to be language-based signals report will be ... Therefore, its sound system must be compatible with different programming sources, so that the "average" of the outstanding, that is not biased towards a particular one uses. And home HI-FI audio equipment, only need to take care of a person or a handful of people's taste, its product's "personality" is tolerated. But as a professional sound reinforcement system equipment, then this kind of "personality" will become "restricted" or "defective." Professional sound reinforcement equipment, the need for a large group of public service content constantly changing, "common" is a basic requirement, compatibility stronger, different types of programs must have the "average" performance. In addition, professional sound reinforcement equipment must be no "free rendering" and "exaggeration" and "faithful" to restore the audio source. This is the "common" or "interoperability."
5) The speaker system features a point
     Speaker voice is usually in the low frequency (below 200HZ) the sound is not directional, spread evenly in all directions. However, at high frequency when the Propagation of Sound show strong direction, the point characteristics (with various types of speakers are not phase-kun) is exactly what we want to be in the system design applied. Excellent features constant point in the field can be arranged at the time of acoustic energy concentrated in the audience area, to avoid the strong reflection surface acoustic wave fields interfere with each other. Let me give an example of easy to understand the difference, the market flashlight. An ordinary flashlight and a condenser features a flashlight, the price can vary the number of pick up times. Even ordinary flashlight flashlight of its power and concentrating the same, but the light can not be projected very far and can not control the projected area. Of the treble part of the speaker and the flashlight light quite similar. If we only need to have sound, what grade of speakers can be done, it means that any one ordinary flashlight can light the same. However, as large-scale projects, we must effectively control the sound field distribution and consider the distance can be projected. The pros and cons of directional enough to affect the success of the project, you must choose a good directional speaker. Characteristics of the speaker to point to deviate from the axial angle with the increase of sound pressure level pressure level gradually decreased; the same time, sound pressure level also increases with the acoustic wave propagation distance by the square of the distance is inversely proportional to the attenuation distance away from the speaker and the position of different audience areas, if these two kinds of decay make the right choices, you can make two kinds of decay of mutual compensation, so that more uniform sound field. Large-scale projects need to cover a relatively wide area, speakers alone are often insufficient to meet the needs to be more than just speakers speakers together such groups (arrays). In the array speaker system, the Hang Seng Index to the feature allows the speaker in between the high-frequency sound waves do not produce interference between the speakers. Use with the above-mentioned characteristics of the HSI to the composition of a pair of speakers placed eight-character type, you can double the coverage of a single speaker. Otherwise, the sound of the front speakers have already interfere with each other, seriously affecting the evenness of the sound field and sound clarity.
6) The speaker system's power handling capacity
     Speaker system's power handling capacity (or speakers rated power) is an important technical parameters, it represents the speaker to withstand long-term safety of continuous power input capability to understand the speaker's power handling capability, we must first understand how the speaker drive is damaged , drive damage model has two kinds: One is the voice coil overheat damage (voice coil burning, thermal variations, inter-ring breakdown, etc.), the other is the drive of the diaphragm displacement in excess of limits, so that the speaker cone diaphragm and / or its surrounding elastic component damage, usually occurs in containing many large amplitude low-frequency signals. Sound signal is not a pure sine-wave signal, but a random, these random signals can be used three parameters to the table formula: RMS (RMS) also known as the root mean square value is based on the signal peak amplitude of the sinusoidal signal a measurement result, close to the average, largely on behalf of the heat energy of the signal.
     Peak (PEAK) is the signal to reach the maximum level, for the sine wave, the peak level greater than the RMS level 3DB, for the music signal, the peak level of more than RMS up to 10-15DB, in assessing a kinds of speaker displacement capacity, the peak is important. The peak factor, used to describe the peak level and RMS level ratio, according to AES2-1984 for the pink noise source, the peak factor 6DB, the peak voltage is 4 times the RMS voltage. Speaker's power handling capacity is based on (AES2-1984) treated the pink noise signal plus 2 consecutive hours of work, its electrical properties and mechanical properties of permanent changes are not more than 10% of the cases, the measured technical parameters.
7) load (heat) sound pressure level after the drop (also known as power compression)
      All products specifications are the manufacturers on the nominal power of custom is that the speakers selected in the factory test signals and conditions of the optimum value. When the speaker into the working state (for example, is equal to or greater than the full-power 20 seconds later), voice coil and magnet temperature heat after the performance degradation due to their pre-heating unit has changed the original features, this time, the actual sound pressure output of the will be reduced. Conventional speakers, such as the voice coil temperature rise of 60 ¡æ -80 ¡æ, commonly rated sound pressure level dropped 3DB as tolerance, such as the excellent voice coil cooling, while the temperature reached 100 ¡æ and above, the actual sound pressure drop of up to 6 to 8DB This is quite alarming decline. As before, title, and, doubling the speaker only to enhance the sound pressure level 3DB, if the speaker sound pressure level dropped by 6DB, sound pressure level to make up for such a large drop from the original one speaker to be increased to four. Very sorry, audio sound pressure level of the industrial sector did not decline in nominal habit of this, the user can select the best of all brands have a competition on their own. To improve the sound pressure level of a decline in the need to better improve loudspeaker unit thermal design.
8) Speaker unit Impedance
     Speaker unit that contains the impedance, inductance, capacitance and resistance values. Inductance and capacitance is with the frequency change. Although the speaker system, a nominal impedance, for example, 8 ohms, 4 ohms, but the value will follow the frequency change. If the impedance changed so much, it will affect the entire audio system stability. JBL latest DCD double-coil impedance differential-driven design is to become a "pure resistance" nature, which is not affected by frequency changes, so that the work of the whole sou

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