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Technical characteristics of the application of speaker

[Author:admin] [Date:14-04-15] [Hot:]

Speaker system has a number of occasions with the use of sound effects and directly related to the technical characteristics of these technologies in order to make the best use of live features, a user must understand them.
     1) The Road (2 sub-band) and three-way (three-way) speaker system
     The audio signal spectrum with a wide range to 20Hz-20kHz signal to use a loudspeaker unit is unable to meet the frequency response of the whole; ordinary 12-inch large-diameter speaker unit, bass characteristics of a good little distortion, but more than 1.5kHz signal, its performance on the very bad; 1-2 inch tweeters unit (tweeter compression drivers) than 3kHz signal playback performance of good, but you can not replay the tone and the bass signal. So there will be a unit formed by a variety of frequency response of the speaker system, from the bass (with bass) and treble (with alt) two kinds of modules, known as the Road speaker system, from the bass, the tone and Treble three kinds of modules, known as the three-way systems.
     Road speaker system is simple, relatively low cost, in order to address the lack of this mid-range frequencies, so some manufacturers use a bad method of folding, that is on the network at the sub-frequency woofer frequency response characteristics of the upward movement, the Tweeter frequency characteristics remains to be seen moving down. Another problem is that, sub-frequency crossover points, frequency can only be set at between 500Hz-2kHz, and this area is the human voice and music an important part of the spectrum. Therefore, in hearing Exalted leave "empty" feeling and hear the distortion. Also because of this, three-way speaker of the speaker unit demand is relatively high, if the poor performance of units, the entire loudspeaker system is not smooth voice, or have a serious phase distortion.
     Three-way speaker system, the characteristics of each unit from time to compromise, give full play to their respective strengths, the two sub-selectable frequency crossover points, in the tenor voice and the sound of music an important part of the spectrum the upper and lower edges, have no effect on the sound quality Therefore, three-way speaker system reduces sound distortion, improve the sound clarity, improved low-frequency crossover between high and treble performance, an increase of speaker systems power handling capability, therefore, theatrical performances, concerts and song theater sound reinforcement system, the best choice.
     2) sensitivity and maximum sound pressure level (SPL max)
     Speaker unit is a kind of electrical signal and sound between the transducers require it in order to convey a relatively small input power is replaced by a very loud and clear voice, which requires speakers have a high sound pressure sensitivity, [sensitivity] is essentially a [efficiency] of the embodiment of the system due to various types of Yang loss of cis-use design technology, choice of materials and production processes, and many other differences, the sensitivity was different.
     Sensitivity refers to the speaker unit 1 watt input electric power, in the speaker axis 1 meter away from the measured sound pressure level of the size, if the sensitivity of the two speakers to achieve as great a difference of 3dB of sound pressure level of output, the need for additional electricity input power doubled, so a higher sensitivity speaker can issue a larger voice.
     Speaker system input power capacity is generally much larger than a watt (typically 100 watts -2,000 watts) so the actual use can enter the maximum allowable electric power at rated maximum power, enter the speaker, the speaker axial 1 m sound pressure level generated by referred to as the greatest SPL SPL max cases, sensitivity = 100dB, 1w/1m speaker, if the capacity of a maximum power of 1000W, then the SPL max = 100dB +30 dB = 130dB, 1m.
     3) The distortion and sound quality
     Speaker plants do not have the nominal rate of distortion of their products, in fact, it is a very important technical parameters, quality is a more abstract assessment, nor did the document may be nominal, but to take a test of subjective listening, usually, sensitivity and sound quality are contradictory, manufacturers need to make a proper balance between the two in general, the low-priced products, are sensitive to lead, the pursuit of cost performance, while the emphasis on high-priced quality products, most high-level person is a combination of both.
     4) [personality] and [Common]
     This again brought up the other relatively abstract and subjective performance evaluation, sound reinforcement using sound, different from home Hi-Fi audio equipment, must be compatibility is very high, because each site may perform different types of programs , from opera to rock concerts, but also likely to be language-based report will be the signal, so the sound system must be compatible with different programming sources, so that [the average of] is an excellent and that is not biased towards a particular purpose, and at home The Hi-Fi audio equipment, just need to take care of a person or a handful of people's taste, its products of [personality] is allowed to exist, but as a professional sound reinforcement system equipment, then such [character] will become [limit sexual] or [defects].
     The professional sound reinforcement equipment, the need for a large group of public service content constantly changing, [common] is the basic requirement, compatibility stronger, different types of programs must have the [average] of the performance, in addition to professional sound reinforcement equipment must be is "no rendering" and "exaggeration" and "faithful" to restore the sound source is the [common] or [commonality].
     5) The speaker system features a point
     Speaker voice is usually in the low frequency (below 200Hz) of the sound is not directional, spread evenly in all directions, but in high frequency when the Propagation of Sound show strong direction, the point characteristics (types of speakers are not the same) is what we have to be applied in system design, excellent features a constant point can be arranged at the scene at the time of acoustic energy concentrated in the audience area, to avoid the strong reflection surface acoustic wave fields interfere with each other.
     Characteristics of the speaker to point to deviate from the axial angle with the increase of sound pressure level sound pressure level gradually decreased, while sound pressure level also increases with the acoustic wave propagation distance by the square of the distance is inversely proportional to the attenuation distance away from the speaker and azimuth of different audience areas, if these two kinds of decay make the right choices, you can make two kinds of decay of mutual compensation, so that more uniform sound field, large-scale projects need to cover a relatively wide area, speakers alone are often insufficient to cope with only speakers need to be multi-speaker together such groups (display), while the display speaker system, the Hang Seng Index to the feature allows the speaker in between the high-frequency sound waves between the speaker does not produce interference, use with the above-mentioned characteristics of a point shape composed of eight pairs of speakers placed, you can double the coverage of a single speaker, otherwise the sound of the front speakers have already interfere with each other, seriously affecting the evenness of the sound field and sound clarity.
     6) The speaker system's power handling capacity
     Speaker's power handling capacity (or speaker's rated power) is an important technical parameters, it represents the speaker to withstand long-term safety of continuous power input capability to understand the speaker's power handling capability, we must first understand how the speaker driver is damaged, damage to the drive mode, there are two:
     One is the voice coil overheat damage (voice coil burning, thermal deformation, inter-ring breakdown, etc.), the other is the drive of the diaphragm displacement in excess of limits, so that the speaker cone / or its surrounding elastic components damage, usually occurs in containing many large amplitude low-frequency signals.
     Sound signal is not a sine-wave signal, but a random, these three can be the number of random signals can be expressed as RMS (RMS) also known as root mean square value is based on the signal peak amplitude of the sinusoidal signal of a kinds of measurements, close to the average, largely on behalf of the heat energy of the signal.
     Peak (Peak) is the signal to reach the maximum level, for the sine wave, the peak level greater than the RMS level of 3dB, for the music signal, the peak level of more than 10-15dB RMS up to the assessment of a Speaker of the displacement capacity, the peak is important, the peak factor, used to describe the peak level and RMS level ratio, according to AES2-1984 for the pink noise source, the peak factor of 6dB, the peak voltage is 4 times the RMS voltage.
     Speaker's power handling capacity is based on (AES2-11984) treatment, the pink noise signal continuous work plus two hours of their electrical properties and mechanical properties of permanent changes are not more than 10% of the cases, the measured technical parameters.
     7) load (heat) sound pressure level after the drop (also known as power compression)
     All products specifications are the manufacturers on the nominal power of custom is that the speakers selected in the factory test signals and conditions the best value, when the speaker into the working state (for example, is equal to or greater than the full power and 20 seconds later) , heating temperature voice coil and magnet, the performance degradation due to their pre-heating unit has changed the original features, this time, the actual sound pressure output will be reduced, conventional speaker, such as the voice coil temperature rise of 60 degrees -80 degrees, Common for the rated sound pressure level dropped 3dB tolerance, such as the voice coil cooling excellent heat resistance up to 100 degrees, the actual sound pressure drop of up to 6 to 8dB, which is quite alarming decline, such as the earlier title and to increase the double the speaker if the speaker only to enhance the sound pressure level SPL 3dB decrease of 6dB, to make up for such a large decline in sound pressure level from a speaker must be increased to four, very sorry, audio industry, this is not the nominal sound pressure level dropped, we must improve the speaker unit of a good thermal design.
     8-) Speaker unit Impedance
     Speaker impedance unit include inductance, capacitance and resistance values, inductance and capacitance is changing with frequency, although the nominal one in the speaker system impedance changed so much, it will affect the stability of the entire audio system, JBL latest DCD double coil impedance differential-driven design is to become [a pure resistance] nature of the frequency changes from the impact of the work of the whole sound system is stable.

 

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